All Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs), including Electric Cars have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine (fossil fuel engine ). The electric motor get power from a large traction battery pack and be plugged in to Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). Electric cars have minimal operating expenses and also highly eco-friendly because they consume little or no petrol or diesel. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency categorizes all-electric vehicles as zero-emission vehicles because they produce no direct exhaust or tailpipe emissions. If you want to understand How Electric Vehicles work. You need to be familiar with the physical elements of an Electrical Vehicle. This tutorial will definitely help you to clear your doubts about Electric Vehicle/Cars.
Electric vehicle interior (Image: Alternative Fuels Data Center/US Department of Energy).
Electric Cars Engine Working Parameter
The electric motor serves as an engine in electric cars. Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming increasingly common because it is easy to drive, nature friendly and working parameter are better than internal combustion engine (fossil fuels engine).
The following points describe how an electric car works.
- The Power Electronics Controller (PEC) regulates the flow of electrical energy to the motor when you push the accelerator pedal.
- A DC-to-DC converter converts high-voltage current from the battery pack to low-voltage current to replenish the auxiliary battery.
- The amount of current required to power the motor changes based on the amount of pressure applied to the accelerator pedal.
- The energy produced by braking or slowing the vehicle is returned to the battery pack.
- When the motor is powered up, the rotors begin to spin and generate mechanical energy.
- The mechanical energy generated by the motor begins to rotate the gears or transmission.
- The mechanical energy is transferred to the wheels via the gearbox, which moves the vehicle forward.
- You charge the battery by attaching an external power source to the charging port on the car.
Electric Vehicles/Cars Charging Process
The process of charging an electric vehicle is similar to that of charging a smartphone. Connect directly to the battery-powered vehicle to an external power source using the cable supplied by the automobile manufacturer.
An EV may be charged by connecting it to an external power source. It might be a domestic power outlet or a separate charging station. EV charging is further classified into three tiers based on the capability of the electrical energy flow.
Level 1 charging: It is just charging an EV using a standard 120-volt power outlet accessible in most homes. You may connect the charger to a power outlet and charge the battery overnight.
Level 2 charging: it is the most popular form of the public charging station. You can even build a Level 2 charging station at home if the automobile manufacturer allows it. It requires a 240-volt power outlet. Charging time is lowered when compared to 120-volt charging.
Level 3 charging: Rapid chargers or DC fast chargers are used in this system. Fast-charging stations are typically installed in strategic areas by EV manufacturers, and you may be charged to use such charging stations. With fast chargers, charging speed is quick (usually slightly over an hour for a full charge) due to DC power.
However, to use Level 3 charging, your EV must be compatible with rapid charging.
AC/DC and electric cars
AC (Alternating Current). In AC, the current changes direction at a determined frequency, like the pendulum on a clock.
DC (Direct Current). In DC, the current flows in one direction only, from positive to negative.
10 Key Unit of an All-Electric Cars
After a basic understanding of how an electric vehicle works. Now we provide a brief overview of the major characteristics and components of an EVs. Let’s have a look at some of the most important components of a battery-powered vehicle.
- Charge Port.
- Charging Cable
- Battery of EVs.
- Power Controller.
- Onboard Charge.
- Cooling System.
- Traction Battery Pack
- Electric Transmission
1> Charge port : The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the traction battery pack.
2> Charging Cable: A charging cable for standard charging is supplied with and stored in the vehicle. It’s used for charging at home or at standard public charge points. A fast charge point will have its own cable.
3> Battery of EVs: In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories. Battery technology has ameliorate immensely in recent years. Ongoing EV batteries are lithium based and have a very low rate of discharge. Once the battery has sufficient electrical energy stored, the vehicle is ready to use.
4> Motor Electric traction : All electric vehicle motors use AC power. The electric motor is the core of the electric power train, converting electrical energy from the battery pack to mechanical energy. Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle’s wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
5> Inverter (converter DC/AC): This device convert’s higher-voltage DC power to the AC Power used to accelerate an electric vehicle motor. It can increase or decrease the Speed, Power and torque of the motor by adjusting the amplitude of the signal. Inverter also suitable to recharge the auxiliary batteries.
6> Power Electronic controller (PEC): The controller are managing all of its parameters. This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.
7> Onboard charger: Takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
8> Thermal system (cooling): This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics controller, and other power train components at optimal operating temperatures.
9> Traction battery pack: Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
10> Electric Transmission : The transmission distribute mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels. The gearbox in EVs is automated, and the gear configuration is simple comparison to traditional vehicles.
Battery Electric Vehicles/Cars are better for the climate than Fossil Fuel powered cars . The advancements made in the electric car sector in recent years are increasing. Climate scientists say Electric Vehicles is one of the best ways to reduce planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions. In the United States, the transportation sector is the largest source of emissions according to MIT report.