What are Electric Vehicles/Cars?
An Electric Vehicle (EV) runs on an electric motor rather than an internal-combustion engine that creates power by burning a mixture of gasoline and gases. All Electric Vehicle, such as an electric car, uses one or more electric motors powered by an on-board battery pack to accelerate and drive. Depending on the type of EV, the electric motor(s) either assist a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE). An electric power source charges the on-board battery pack, and the vehicle can also recharge the battery through regenerative. Since they do not emit exhaust gas, they are rapidly gaining popularity in recent years as eco-friendly vehicles. The output from the lithium-ion battery is DC current, but the drive motor of electric vehicles is an AC motor. Therefore, an inverter that converts the DC current into three-phase AC must also be installed.
A harness is also essential to ensure the safe and reliable transmission of high-voltage electricity. Electric vehicles use the back EMF from the motor to save energy. Therefore, in the development of motors and inverters for electric vehicles, it is also necessary to conduct tests using regenerative DC power supplies.
10 Key Unit of an All Electric Vehicles / Cars
After a basic understanding of how an electric vehicle works. Now we provide a brief overview of the major characteristics and components of an EVs. Let’s have a look at some of the most important components of a battery-powered vehicle.
- Charge Port.
- Charging Cable
- Battery of EVs.
- Power Controller.
- Onboard Charge.
- Cooling System.
- Traction Battery Pack
- Electric Transmission
1> Charge port : The charge port allows the vehicle to connect to an external power supply in order to charge the traction battery pack.
2> Charging Cable: A charging cable for standard charging is supplied with and stored in the vehicle. It’s used for charging at home or at standard public charge points. A fast charge point will have its own cable.
3> Battery of EVs: In an electric drive vehicle, the auxiliary battery provides electricity to power vehicle accessories. Battery technology has ameliorate immensely in recent years. Ongoing EV batteries are lithium based and have a very low rate of discharge. Once the battery has sufficient electrical energy stored, the vehicle is ready to use.
4> Motor Electric traction : All electric vehicle motors use AC power. The electric motor is the core of the electric power train, converting electrical energy from the battery pack to mechanical energy. Using power from the traction battery pack, this motor drives the vehicle’s wheels. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both the drive and regeneration functions.
5> Inverter (converter DC/AC): This device convert’s higher-voltage DC power to the AC Power used to accelerate an electric vehicle motor. It can increase or decrease the Speed, Power and torque of the motor by adjusting the amplitude of the signal. Inverter also suitable to recharge the auxiliary batteries.
6> Power Electronic controller (PEC): The controller are managing all of its parameters. This unit manages the flow of electrical energy delivered by the battery, controlling the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it produces.
7> Onboard charger: Takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charge port and converts it to DC power for charging the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors battery characteristics such as voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
8> Thermal system (cooling): This system maintains a proper operating temperature range of the engine, electric motor, power electronics controller, and other power train components at optimal operating temperatures.
9> Traction battery pack: Stores electricity for use by the electric traction motor.
10> Electric Transmission : The transmission distribute mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels. The gearbox in EVs is automated, and the gear configuration is simple comparison to traditional vehicles.
Fast charging for EVs?
There are two types of chargers:
- Alternating current (AC) slow charging (3–22 kW) provides energy for, on average, 30 miles for an hour of charging. These are found in private homes and in public charging stations. AC is also used in private homes and can be installed easily.
- Direct-current (DC) fast charging (50–300 kW) provides, on average, at least 150 miles for 20 minutes of charging. This type of charging is available only at public charging stations and requires a significant investment to install.
Positive and Negative of Electric Cars
- Reduce CO2 emissions
- Cheaper to own and run
- Require less maintenance
- Quick and fun to drive!
- Can be more expensive to buy
- Public charging stations remain a challenge
- Charging can take time
- Range anxiety
Types of Electric Cars
- Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV)
- Plug-in Hybrid vehicles (PHEV)
- Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
- Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
1> Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
Hybrid Electric Vehicles, or HEVs, is currently the most common type of electrified vehicle. HEVs have both a gas-powered engine and an electric motor to drive the car. Traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) with a battery and electric motor working separately or in tandem to reduce fuel consumption. All energy for the battery is gained through regenerative braking and driving so they never need to be plugged in.
Examples of HEV
Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Prius Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Toyota RAV4 Hybrid, Toyota Prius and Lexus RX.
2> Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV)
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, or PHEVs, have both an internal combustion engine and electric motor to drive the car. Like regular hybrids, they can recharge their battery through regenerative braking and Driving. They differ from regular hybrids by having a much larger battery and being able to plug into the grid to recharge. However, with a bigger battery, a PHEV can be driven anywhere from 40 to 60km on electric power alone before the ICE kicks in. PHEVs as the name suggests, need to be plugged in to recharge the battery.
Examples of PHEV
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid, Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid, Ford C-Max Energi, Mercedes C350e, Mercedes S550e, Mercedes GLE550e, Mini Cooper SE Countryman, Audi A3 E-Tron, BMW 330e, BMW i8, BMW X5 xdrive40e, Hyundai Sonata, Kia Optima, Volvo XC90 T8.
3> Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
Battery Electric Vehicles, also called BEVs and more frequently called EVs, are fully electric vehicles with rechargeable batteries and no gasoline engine. All energy to run the vehicle comes from the battery pack which is recharged from the grid. The driving ranges of anywhere between 300 to 500km, BEVs require charging, either at home or at public charging stations. BEVs are zero emissions vehicles, as they do not generate any harmful tailpipe emissions or air pollution hazards caused by traditional gasoline-powered vehicles.
Examples of BEV
BMW i3, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai Ioniq, Kia Soul, Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Tesla X, Toyota Rav4, Polestar 2, Tesla Model 3 and Porsche Taycan.
4> Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV)
Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV) are powered purely by electricity and generate zero CO2 emissions. But, instead of plugging into the electricity grid, FCEVs generate their own power supply by burning hydrogen which is stored in a tank similar to a car’s fuel tank. No recharging is required. FCEVs on the market today are not designed for recharging their battery from an external source. Instead, hydrogen is pumped into the FCEVs fuel tank much like petrol or diesel is into a conventional ICE car but not currently widely available.
Examples of FCEV
Toyota Mirai, Hyundai Tucson FCEV, Riversimple Rasa, Honda Clarity Fuel Cell, Hyundai Nexo.